Farming Crisis of the 1970′s and 1980′s in the Plains States

Historical Background

http://www.nebraskastudies.org/1000/frameset_reset.html?http://www.nebraskastudies.org/1000/stories/1001_0100.html

planting corn

planting corn

There were dark clouds hanging over agriculture during the 1970s and 80s. Source – NETV, Ralph Hammack  (You can see a short video history of the ag crisis at the link above)

Throughout the history of the central Great Plains region, there have been cycles and factors that affect the lives of those who live here. These factors have always produced results that we can see later.  

Some factors are natural — like the cycle of wet years and dry years.

      • This “drought cycle” results in a pattern of good times followed by bad times for the plants, animals and humans living on the Plains.
      • We can see that in the archeological record where the indications of plains Indian settlements disappears between roughly A.D. 1400 and 1600.

Other factors affecting life on the Plains are man-made — like the cycles of economic activity and the progress of technology.

In the 1970s and 80s, a combination of factors resulted in a period when farmers across the Midwest could no longer stay in business, and that produced profound changes in the social landscape of the region.

This period is known as the farm crisis.

windmill damaged by the wind and weather over time

There were several factors that came together to create the crisis.

Factors:

Technology.

  • One major factor was advancements in the technological of farming. New machines, crops, pesticides and irrigation resulted in greater efficiency — it took fewer farmers to produce the same amount of food in the 1970s.
  • In 1940, one American farmer produced enough food to feed 15 people; by 1960 one farmer could feed 65 people.

Expansion through borrowing.

To take advantage of the new technology, farmers felt the pressure to grow larger, to farm more ground with more expensive machines and techniques. They bought more land. They bought new machines. They paid more for seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and services. Many paid for this new technology by borrowing money from banks. In the early 70s, they were able to grow more, and the prices for their crops were high enough to support the expansion.

A good economy.  

[Yes, this is very ironic.]

During the mid 1970s, economic factors were good — interest rates were relatively low, so farmers could borrow cheaply. People in foreign countries wanted American food and had the money to pay for it, so foreign markets became important to the farmers. And prices for their land seemed reasonable.

Governmental policies.

Some critics argue that tax laws and price support programs have favored large factory farms (owned by corporations) over family farms. [ Who votes these elected representatives into office?]

They say that increasing corporate concentration has squeezed family farmers out of the market. [The Generation Farmers of Southwest Iowa and how various aspects of Farming History is not addressed in this history. We exist between two extremes. Many of us are women among those who have self identified so far. We are not large corporate farming operations. We are often from Iowa farm families by origin, but living elsewhere. The negative connotations associated with the term "absentee landlord" do not begin to address the role that we take in managing our land. Painting the on-going economic issues for farm land and farmers in the Plains States must include those who now live away from their land, but who provide jobs for local farmers. Not living in the community any more may not have been a conscientious decision, but one that outside factors over which we had no control imposed on us. We intend to stay in farming on our family farm. We are not large corporate farms. How we can bring our family back into farming is one topic that I would like to have addressed since none of us have fathers who can show us how. We are those family farm owners who exist in those grey areas between farm operators who live on their land and who need more and more land just to be able to make payments on expensive farm equipment and those large corporate farms we often hear about. This blog is dedicated to those of us in the "gray areas" of agriculture who depend on it for our livelihood]

What changed in the late 1970s & 80s.

The economy went bad. The economy moves in cycles.   [However, this may have simply been an acceleration of a trend that was already in progress... or, was it?]

In this time period, economic factors starting going down, which forced interest rates up — farmers had to pay more for the loans they needed to operate each year. 

[Probably one of the key factors: higher interest rates!]

      • In addition, people tend to buy less during bad economic times, so the prices paid for farm commodities went down.
      • Foreign markets dried up, driving prices down further.

In 1980, Russia invaded Afghanistan. The U.S. protested, and Pres. Jimmy Carter stopped the shipment of farm products to Russia in response to the invasion.

        • That embargo on farm products hurt the farm export market.
        • And then, other countries ran into hard economic times as well.
        • U.S. farmers could not sell as many goods overseas as they had been.
        • Debts piled up. With less demand and lower prices for their products, many American farmers had no way to pay back the banks for the loans they had taken out.
        • Many borrowed even more money, hoping that better crops and prices would rescue them in a year or two.  It didn’t happen.

[Hind-sight is 20/20 vision or perfect vision, but at any given moment we don't have that luxury. However, can we learn from this experience?]

The image below can be found at the link: http://www.nebraskastudies.org/1000/frameset_reset.html?http://www.nebraskastudies.org/1000/stories/1001_0100.html

This sign in a manure spreader expressed the frustration many farmers felt in the late 1970s over farm prices.  Source – Bill Ganzel.  (image can be found at the link above)

Results

The 1980s was a period when thousands of farm families lost their farms because of low farm prices and overwhelming debt. 

Farming was in a crisis. 

        •  For a period of time it was almost impossible to open a newspaper or turn on the television without facing images of farm auctions and foreclosure sales.
        •  Many of the farmers who were able to survive the 1980s have had to find work off the farm to supplement their meager farm incomes.

There were specific results.

[That is beyond the first and most obvious result that the land was lost to farmers due to being over extended in debt.]

Rural populations declined.

Actually, the farm crisis of the 70s and 80s accelerated a process that had been going on for some time. 

In 1935 the number of farms in the United States reached an all-time high of 6.8 million farms.

  •  By the mid-1980s, there were only 2.2 million farms.
  • By 1989, farm residents made up only 1.9 percent of the total U.S. population.  [i.e.  the Plains states saw a very rapid change in their demography; they experienced a loss in population that included their children.]

Rural communities grew older.

  • Young farmers often need to borrow large sums to get started.
  • They are the first to go out of business when times are tough. 

Also, as more and more people leave rural areas, there are fewer jobs in towns available to the young.  [There was nothing in the local area that could provide an alternative job so the young people moved away, much further. As the Generation Farmers of Southwest Iowa, this is perhaps the underlying topic that unites us. We love the land, our family farm and we need to figure out how to stay in a sustainable way. This is a part of who we are.]

        • So young people move away to cities where the jobs are.
        • The result is a “graying” of communities in the central Plains.

If these trends continue — 

          •  declining rural populations, 
          • migration of young adults to urban areas, and 
          • an increasing concentration of the elderly in rural areas 

— many counties in Nebraska will be hard-pressed to sustain their economy, schools and government services in the future. [In Southwest Iowa, we have seen a consolidation of the schools and perhaps all of the other issues related to trying to continue to be a small community. In other words, the same or similar conditions describe southwest Iowa also. Where to from here????]

In this section, we’ll tell the story of the farm crisis and the beginnings of possible new economic opportunities. 

The same technology that threatens farming on the Plains may offer new ways to make money and revitalize the area.  [Really???]

Crisis in Agriculture

(images can be found at the link above) 

Farmers Call for a Strike

The first rumblings of the 1980s farm crisis came in the 1970s.

      • In the early years of the decade, prices for farm products were relatively high. In 1973, farmers across the nation had a total net income of $33 billion.
      • By 1977, record crops had pushed prices down, and the cost of fuel, seed, pesticides and other farm costs had risen — net farm income dropped to $20 billion.
      • In addition, the value of farm land — the “equity” or value that farmers use to secure loans to operate each year — had dropped.
      • Banks were no longer willing to loan to smaller farmers.
      • Many were in danger of losing their farms.

Farmers cheer the call for an ag strike at a rally in Pueblo, Colorado, 1977. Source – Bill Ganzel. (images can be found at the link)

Farmers on the Plains, particularly, were so desperate that they decided to strike if the government wouldn’t guarantee high enough prices for their commodities to cover the cost of production and a reasonable profit.

The movement began in Springfield, Colorado, where a group of farmers got together and developed the strike idea. They called on farmers across the country to stop buying or selling anything on December 14, 1977, unless their demands were met. Within a week, the group had a name — the American Agriculture Movement (AAM) — and the strike had gathered enough attention that the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Bob Bergland met with farmers in Pueblo, Colorado. He did little to placate the anger of the Movement.

Strike plans proceeded. The core demand of the group was for “parity.” 

Parity is a statistical model that looks at what it costs farmers to buy the materials they need to farm and the prices they get for their crops.

The designers of the model decided that in the period between 1910-14, an average farmer’s income and expenses were in rough balance. He or she made enough money in selling farm commodities to support a reasonable standard of living. The economists then factored in inflation rates and current prices for commodities in a given year to come up with parity levels.

In 1977, the “parity level” was estimated at roughly 66 percent. In other words, some economists said that the buying power of farm commodities had dropped by a third.

These economists and activists estimated that full parity prices for farmers would have resulted in a 20 percent increase in the cost of food to the consumer, despite the fact that most of the cost of food goes to processors, transporters and distributors, not farmers. Other economists disputed the whole scientific basis of parity.

On Dec. 10, farmers across the nation rallied at their state capitols to support the strike. Nebraska farmers joined their counterparts and drove their tractors from the Capitol building to the Devaney Sports Center for a rally. Despite freezing temperatures, even Gov. J. J. Exon rode on an open tractor to the rally. Officials counted just over 5,000 vehicles entering the Sports Center and estimated the crowd at 6,000.

Exon told the crowd of farmers,

“They said it would be a cold day in hell when farmers would get together. I can’t tell you how warm it is to have you here in Lincoln. I only wish we had had such a rally two or three years ago. ‘Strike’ is not a usual word with farm people, these are not usual times. We need to get the message across to everyone that there is a problem. The farmer gets 31 cents of the food dollar while the labor processor gets 33 cents and the transportation and marketing segment get 36 cents. Unless we can get more than 31 cents for the farmer, we won’t have our food plant sustained.”

Strikers from all across the midwest gathered at the rally in Pueblo, Colorado.   Source – Bill Ganzel.(image can be found at the links found on this page)

Burt Evans, a University of Nebraska economist, urged the farmers to hang together or hang separately. [ a good idea to have a community.]

“Getting the government out of agriculture is nonsense,” he said. “We need good, sound programs all the time. A good farm program has to be there all the time.[ I rely on these programs. I am also aware that many aspects of these programs are being targeted by other non-farming groups.]

One farmer said he planned to put a sign on his tractor indicating it had a usable life of about 10 years, but that it would take him about 15 years to pay for it because of low prices for agricultural products.

Signs were everywhere, and many got the attention of reporters and observers.

They were known as “Deere John letters,” creating a pun with the name of the tractor manufacturer.

• “Crime Doesn’t Pay… Neither Does Farming.”

• “Corn is in the barn, but it’s not worth a darn.”

• “Parity Not Government Charity.”

• “All we want for Christmas is 100 percent parity.”

• “If you eat, you have a stake in the farmer’s plight.” 

The rallies in the Plains states were the largest, but a majority of agricultural states did participate. 

Even President Carter’s sister participated in a tractorcade in Georgia. Gloria Carter Spann rode in a lawn chair on top of a tractor owned by her husband.

She said, “Farmers are united for the first time, I’ve never been so proud of farmers.”

While the rallies created a lot of attention, the strike did not go as planned. The Omaha World-Herald conducted a poll in Nebraska to see what Nebraskans thought about the proposed national farm strike.

A majority of Nebraskans interviewed said they approved of a farm strike. However, a similar majority of farmers interviewed said they did not plan to participate in the strike.

Nationally, U.S. Department of Agriculture statistics showed continued increased production from 1977 to 1978.

In short, the strike had absolutely no effect on food and fiber production.

This was not the first time that a strike had been proposed.

During the 1930s, farmers in Nebraska and Iowa actually blocked roads leading to agricultural markets to try and force other farmers to keep their products off the market. That strike was short-lived as well.

Getting any large and diverse group, like all farmers, is extremely difficult. But the movement did dramatize the hard times that farmers were facing.

Crisis in Agriculture:   Farm Strike Moves to Washington, D.C.

Crisis in Agriculture: Farm Strike Moves to Washington, D.C.  ( please see the link above to view this image)

The year after the first strike, the American Agriculture Movement decided to take their demands and their tractors to Washington DC.

    • They were demanding a revision of the 1977 Farm Bill.
    • They argued that the bill encouraged large scale production, but did not guarantee of high enough prices to keep small farms in business.
    • The AAM emphasized rallies and protests against the political system.
[We need to work with the people we send to Washington.]

Tractorcade in Washington, DC.

A protest rally in the nation’s capital was planned for January, 1978, which would bring a nationwide focus to the organization and the strike. Nearly 3,000 farmers drove their tractors into town on the interstate highways. Many had traveled across the country to get to the rally. Along the way, many protesters stopped in local congressional offices in order to explain their position.

As one of the participants remarked enthusiastically, “They [congressional staff] poured out of every corner to meet with us — when I saw all that, I knew we were damned important.”

The farmers did achieve a minor legislative triumph — the Farmers Home Administration, which lends money to farmers who can’t get financing anywhere else, imposed a moratorium on all foreclosures.

In other words, the FHA would temporarily stop taking the land and equipment pledged in security for loans that farmers could not repay.

But, the moratorium was short-lived. It was a symbolic act that later gave way to economic realities.

In 1979, the AAM was back in Washington again, even more angry as the farm crisis deepened and more farmers lost their land.

There were nearly 900 vehicles for the second tractorcade, but only half the number of farmers.

This time, they refused to park peacefully at a local stadium.

Instead, they tied up traffic and damaged some federal facilities. Finally, the police confined them to the Mall area.

This time Washington did not open its doors.

Most legislatures would not meet with AAM representatives and, in retaliation, many farmers became belligerent and threatening, which further isolated them from their congressional representatives as well as the general public.

              •  The protesters stayed, camped out on the Washington Mall. During that time a blizzard hit the city with 20-inches of snow.
              • Farmers used their tractors to help dig out the city.
              • Some tractors transported doctors and nurses to hospitals.
              • AAM women even cooked and cleaned in hospitals when other staff couldn’t make it in. By midwinter, most of the protestors had left DC.

Kenneth Hilton, a Nebraska farmer from Cambridge, was one of the protestors who was arrested by DC police for becoming too belligerent.

Police tried to stop a line of tractors from forming in an unauthorized area, and Hilton’s tractor rammed two police scooters.

Police pulled Hilton from his tractor and wrestled him to the ground.

Hilton was charged with two felony counts of assaulting police officers and eventually was fined $1,000.

In 1987 Hilton filed for Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code which was created to allow businesses and farms to reorganize and resume business.

Hilton said he was “going through some very stressful times” and was not sure he would be able to resume farming if crop prices remained low.

The American Agriculture Movement played a short but central role in the politics of U.S. agriculture.

They used modern media technology to reach both farmers and the general public to an unprecedented degree.

      • Unfortunately the media technology that the AAM used so effectively, later became a negative factor.
      • Media coverage was critical of the more violent protests and public opinion changed.
      • But the organization still exists and still lobbies on Capitol Hill, pushing the opinions of its farmer-members.

ORIGINS OF THE 1980’s FARM CRISIS: Study Guide

CRISIS IN AGRICULTURE      

 Activity 1: The Business of Farming 

Lesson Grade Level: 

4th – 8th – 12th Grades

Activity: Math Exercises 

Farmers have to do a lot of math. Have students read the Crisis in Agriculture section in the 1975-1999 timeline before answering the following questions:

http://nebraskastudies.org/1000/stories/1001_0100.html

• If a farmer is going to put 1 pint of weed chemical on each acre of soybeans s/he plants, how many gallons would it take to do 80 acres?

• How many pounds does a bushel of wheat weigh? How many loaves of bread weighing one pound could be made (in theory) from a bushel of wheat?

Use the Wheat Foods Council: Wheat Facts website to help find the answers:

http://www.wheatfoods.org/AboutWheat-wheat-facts/Index.htm

• If a farmer had 160 acres of wheat and each acre averaged 40 bushels, how many bushels of wheat would the farmer raise?

• If a farmer’s soybean crop averaged 45 bushels per acre and s/he was paid $5 per bushel, how much profit would the farmer make if s/he had the following expenses per acre?

$15 fertilizer

$10 weed killer

$12 taxes

$50 cost for planting, harvesting, etc.

$80 interest charges for money borrowed to buy the land

 

Nebraska State MATHEMATICS Standards: 

By the end of fourth grade, students will: 

Standard 4.2.1 Estimate, add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers without and with calculators and solve word problems.

Standard 4.3.2 Estimate, measure, and solve word problems using standard units for linear measure, area, mass/weight, capacity, and temperature. 

 

Nebraska State SOCIAL STUDIES Standards: 

By the end of fourth grade, students will: 

Standard 4.1.8 Describe characteristics of a market economic system and the interactions of consumers and producers.

Standard 4.1.9 Demonstrate an understanding of money and the financial system used in the United States.

By the end of eighth grade, students will: 

Standard 8.3.5 Explain the structure and operation of the United States economy and the role of citizens as producers and consumers.

By the end of twelfth grade, students will: 

Standard 12.3.11 Analyze characteristics of the United States free market economy.

Nebraska State READING/WRITING Standards 

By the end of fourth grade, students will: 

Standard 4.1.2 Demonstrate the use of multiple strategies to increase their vocabulary.

Standard 4.1.3 Identify the main idea and supporting details in what they have read.

Standard 4.1.4 Identify the resource appropriate for a specific purpose, and use the resource to locate information.

Standard 4.1.7 Identify and apply knowledge of the text structure and organizational elements to analyze nonfiction or informational text.

Standard 4.1.8 Identify similarities and differences between two fourth grade level reading selections.

Standard 4.2.4 Demonstrate the use of multiple forms to write for different audiences and purposes.

Standard 4.2.5 Demonstrate the use of self-generated questions, note taking, and summarizing while learning.

By the end of eighth grade, students will: 

Standard 8.1.1 Identify the main idea and supporting details in what they have read.

Standard 8.1.2 Identify, locate, and use multiple resources to access information on an assigned or self-selected topic.

Standard 8.1.7 Demonstrate the ability to analyze literary works, nonfiction, films, or media.

Standard 8.2.4 Demonstrate the use of multiple forms to write for different audiences and purposes.

Standard 8.2.5 Demonstrate the ability to use self-generated questions, note taking, summarizing and outlining while learning.

By the end of twelfth grade, students will: 

Standard 12.1.1 Identify the main idea and supporting details in what they have read.

Standard 12.1.6 Identify and apply knowledge of the text structure and organizational elements to analyze non-fiction or informational text.

Standard 12.2.4 Use multiple forms to write for different audiences and purposes.

Standard 12.2.5 Demonstrate the ability to use self-generated questions, note taking, summarizing, and outlining while learning.

Nebraska State SCIENCE Standards 

By the end of fourth grade, students will: 

Standard 4.4.3 Develop an understanding of living things and environments.

Standard 4.5.1 Develop an understanding of the characteristics of earth materials.

Standard 4.6.2 Develop an understanding of science and technology.

Standard 4.7.3 Develop an understanding of environmental changes.

By the end of eighth grade, students will: 

Standard 8.7.2 Develop an understanding of relationships among populations, resources, and environments.

Standard 8.7.3 Develop an understanding of natural hazards.

Standard 8.7.4 Develop an understanding of risks and benefits.

Standard 8.7.5 Develop an understanding of science and technology in society.

By the end of twelfth grade, students will: 

Standard 12.2.1 Develop the abilities needed to do scientific inquiry.

Standard 12.4.4 Develop an understanding of the interdependence of organisms.

Standard 12.7.2 Develop an understanding of the effects of population change.

Standard 12.7.3 Develop an understanding of natural resources.

Standard 12.7.4 Develop an understanding of environmental quality.

Standard 12.7.6 Develop an understanding of the role of science and technology in local, national, and global challenges.

Standard 12.8.3 Develop an understanding of the history of science.

 

Bergamot - Iowa in July

Activity 2: Population Change 

Lesson Grade Level:

4th – 8th – 12th Grades

Activity: Geography Census Analysis 

Have students read the Crisis in Agriculture section in the 1975-1999 timeline.  Then, have students compare and contrast the information contained on the following web pages to help answer the following questions:

http://nebraskastudies.org/1000/stories/1001_0100.html

NE Dept. of Economic Development: Urban & Rural Population Changes Map

http://www.neded.org/files/research/stathand/bsecc2.pdf

POPULATION OF NEBRASKA TOWNS, 1930 to 1980

http://www.neded.org/files/research/stathand/bsect5b.htm

POPULATION OF NEBRASKA TOWNS, 1990 on

http://www.neded.org/files/research/stathand/bsect5c.htm

Nebraska County Population Map 1970

http://maps.unomaha.edu/Peterson/compmapping/projects/Vehe/1970.html

Nebraska County Population Map 1990

http://maps.unomaha.edu/Peterson/compmapping/projects/Vehe/1990.html

• In what counties are the largest cities in Nebraska located?

• What counties have lost the most population (—30 to —20.1) from 1970-1990?

• How do you explain the reasons for counties and/or cities gaining population or losing population?

• What geographic factors have affected the growth and/or loss of population of cities/counties/state?

• What are the political implications for a county/region to lose population?

• What steps would you suggest be taken by local communities and/or government leaders to address the declining population?

NOTE:  Teachers should review these websites ahead of class to help guide students to the appropriate information, based on the students’ skill levels. [You may also want to take a look at these links for your own information.]

Nebraska State SOCIAL STUDIES Standards: 

By the end of fourth grade, students will: 

Standard 4.1.7 Use higher level thinking processes to evaluate and analyze primary sources and other resources.

Standard 4.1.9 Demonstrate an understanding of money and the financial system used in the United States.  [Oh, are we supposed to understand the financial system in the USA? Do the banks know this across the country?]

By the end of eighth grade, students will: 

Standard 8.3.5 Explain the structure and operation of the United States economy and the role of citizens as producers and consumers.

Standard 8.4.2 Demonstrate skills for historical analysis.

Standard 8.4.6 Improve their skills in historical research and geographical analysis.

By the end of twelfth grade, students will: 

Standard 12.1.12 Explain and demonstrate relationships between the geographical and the historical development of the United States by using maps, pictures, and computer databases.

Standard 12.2.11 Demonstrate historical research and geographical skills.

Standard 12.3.11 Analyze characteristics of the United States free market economy.

Nebraska State READING/WRITING Standards

By the end of fourth grade, students will:

Standard 4.1.2 Demonstrate the use of multiple strategies to increase their vocabulary.

Standard 4.1.3 Identify the main idea and supporting details in what they have read.

Standard 4.1.4 Identify the resource appropriate for a specific purpose, and use the resource to locate information.

Standard 4.1.7 Identify and apply knowledge of the text structure and organizational elements to analyze nonfiction or informational text.

Standard 4.2.5 Demonstrate the use of self-generated questions, note taking, and summarizing while learning.

By the end of eighth grade, students will: 

Standard 8.1.1 Identify the main idea and supporting details in what they have read.

Standard 8.1.2 Identify, locate, and use multiple resources to access information on an assigned or self-selected topic.

Standard 8.1.7 Demonstrate the ability to analyze literary works, nonfiction, films, or media.

Standard 8.2.4 Demonstrate the use of multiple forms to write for different audiences and purposes.

Standard 8.2.5 Demonstrate the ability to use self-generated questions, note taking, summarizing and outlining while learning.

By the end of twelfth grade, students will: 

Standard 12.1.1 Identify the main idea and supporting details in what they have read.

Standard 12.1.6 Identify and apply knowledge of the text structure and organizational elements to analyze non-fiction or informational text.

Standard 12.2.4 Use multiple forms to write for different audiences and purposes.

Standard 12.2.5 Demonstrate the ability to use self-generated questions, note taking, summarizing, and outlining while learning.

Nebraska State SCIENCE Standards

By the end of fourth grade, students will: 

Standard 4.1.2 Develop an understanding of evidence, models, and explanation.

Standard 4.4.3 Develop an understanding of living things and environments.

Standard 4.6.1 Develop an understanding of technological design.

Standard 4.6.2 Develop an understanding of science and technology.

Standard 4.7.3 Develop an understanding of environmental changes.

By the end of eighth grade, students will: 

Standard 8.6.1 Develop an understanding of technological design.

Standard 8.7.2 Develop an understanding of relationships among populations, resources, and environments. [ This may be a life long pursuit.]

Standard 8.7.3 Develop an understanding of natural hazards.

Standard 8.7.4 Develop an understanding of risks and benefits.

Standard 8.7.5 Develop an understanding of science and technology in society.

By the end of twelfth grade, students will: 

Standard 12.2.1 Develop the abilities needed to do scientific inquiry.

Standard 12.6.1 Develop an understanding of technological design.

Standard 12.7.2 Develop an understanding of the effects of population change.

Standard 12.7.3 Develop an understanding of natural resources.

Standard 12.7.4 Develop an understanding of environmental quality.

Standard 12.7.6 Develop an understanding of the role of science and technology in local, national, and global challenges.

Standard 12.8.3 Develop an understanding of the history of science.

Tall Grass Prairie - Iowa in July

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s